Introduction Energy Consumption in India
Everything, from humans to machines, relies on energy to function. Around the world, energy is being consumed at an alarming rate, and Energy consumption in India is no exception. India’s most pressing issues are its growing population and, as a result, its rising energy demand. After the United States and China, India is the world’s third-largest energy consumer.
In this article, we will discuss Energy consumption in India, such as electricity, fossil fuels, thermal, solar, and wind energy.
Consumption of Electricity in India
Because of its growing GDP and stable economy, India’s energy consumption has increased significantly since independence. India is one of the world’s biggest electricity consumers. In addition, India was ranked third among the top electricity consumers in 2020.
- The capacity of the power generation sector increased dramatically after independence, from 1347MW in 1947 to 223,334MW in 2014.
- During the year 2019, the gross electricity generated by utilities in India was 1,383.5 TWh and the total electricity generation (utilities and non utilities) in the country was 1,598 TWh.
- India consumed 1229 terawatt-hours of electricity in 2020.
- India generates electricity using fossil fuels, hydropower plants, solar, wind, gas, and nuclear power, among other sources.
- Gross electricity generation by fossil fuels is 1,114,702GWh. Similarly, hydro is 151,695GWh, solar is 73,483GWh, the wind is 68,640GWh, 47,019GWh, and biomass is 16,056GWh of electricity generation.
- Roughly 76% of electricity is generated by fossil fuels, with renewable energy sources accounting for nearly 20% of the total.
- The segmented consumption of statistical data is: residential consumption of electricity accounts for 24%. Industrial consumption of electricity accounts for 42%. Agricultural consumption of electricity accounts for 17%.
- Other sectors’ electricity consumption accounts for 10%.
- In 2021 and 2022, India began to sell more electricity to its neighbors than it bought.
Consumption of Thermal Energy in India
Thermal plants are generally used in the industrial sector, mainly for generating electricity. India’s main source of electricity right now is thermal power, which makes up more than 60% of its installed capacity.
- India focuses on three types of thermal power plants, which are listed below as of 2021: Coal: 206404.50 MW, Gas: 24956.51 MW, and Liquid Fuel (Diesel): 509.71 MW.
- Most of the electricity in the country comes from thermal power plants, which use fossil fuels like coal, for 76% of all the electricity is made in the country. According to the ministry department, the amount of coal made in 2021 was 6% higher than in 2020.
- In 2020, thermal capacity was roughly around 230GW, and in 2021 it was increased to 238GW.
Solar Energy Consumption in India
One of the reasons India is progressing towards a better-developing nation is its plan to use renewable sources of energy.
- India reached its goal of being able to make 20 GW of electricity through solar energy by the year 2022. Additionally, India has improved its solar capacity by up to 53,997 GW in 2022.
- Solar power ranks third in terms of electricity production in India.
- Still, India has a huge amount of solar power potential that hasn’t been fully utilized yet. In India, solar energy of about 5000 trillion kWh per year is spread over the land. However, if 1.33 million MW of solar plants are installed, they will occupy only 1% of the land.
- It is estimated by researchers that India could possibly replace all fossil fuel energy requirements just by building solar power plants on a huge scale on the landmasses. Furthermore, the estimation is that if 32,000 sq km of waste landmass were exploited for solar energy generation alone, it would generate 2,000 billion kWh of electricity. That much power is twice the total power generated in the year 2013-14.
By looking at the country’s investment plans and meeting goals, solar systems will have a great future ahead in India.
Wind Energy Consumption in India
Wind turbines are commonly used for generating electricity. India has the fourth-largest installed wind power capacity in the world. In India, wind power was initiated in 1990.
- India’s wind generation capacity was 40,358 MW as of March 2022.
- Wind energy has recently gained popularity in India, and it is now being promoted in a number of states. Tamil Naidu is a major player, with nearly 23% of the installed capacity.
- India has a milestone set for wind power generation of about 60 GW of wind power capacity by the end of 2022.
Future Electricity Consumption Plans in India
Electricity generation has increased significantly in recent years, from 805 billion units in 2009 to 1381 billion units in 2022, according to statistics. In just 18 months, India has powered twenty-eight million homes. So the future has a lot of potential in India.
- By 2027, India plans to install 275,000 MW of renewable energy capacity.
- Different parts of the country are constructing conventional power plants that will be operational by 2024–2025. The thermal capacity of 36,765 MW, the hydro capacity of 10,164.50 MW, and the nuclear capacity of 4,800 MW are all included in these plans.
- India is expected to have an installed capacity of 8,17,254 MW in 2029–30.
- India’s plans to convert the majority of its cars to electric vehicles by 2030 will reduce fossil fuel consumption while increasing the demand for electric energy.
The electricity supply and demand in India are growing. With rising challenges in the country, such as overpopulation, excessive consumption, and unequal distribution, it is becoming more difficult to meet the country’s energy needs. Besides India, intends to improve and invest in areas that will benefit the country’s current and future electricity production.